The creation of the English-language version of these publications is Þnanced in the framework
of contract No. 768/P-DUN/2016 by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education committed
tobactivities aimed at the promotion of education.
Gender Differences in Leadership
The following study presents preliminary research into leadership differences between men and
women. This research study is preliminary in character and is intended to initiate abdiscussion on the impact of gender as abfactor in leadership style. Data analysis from abpilot study
suggests that differences do exist, but does not provide information as to their source. Further
research is needed to answer that question.
Keywords: leadership, gender, differences.
Submitted: 03.03.2016 | Accepted: 27.07.2016
Róĝnice w zarzÈdzaniu miÚdzy kobietami abmÚĝczyznami
Poniĝsza praca przedstawia badania dotyczÈce moĝliwych róĝnic w sposobie przywództwa
miÚdzy kobietami abmÚĝczyznami. Badanie ma charakter wstÚpny i ma na celu zainicjowanie
dyskusji na temat wpïywu pïci jako czynnika wpïywajÈcego na przywództwo. Analiza danych
z badania pilotaĝowego sugeruje, ĝe róĝnice istniejÈ, natomiast nie odpowiada na pytanie co
jest ich ěródïem. Aby odpowiedzieÊ na to pytanie, konieczne sÈ dalsze badania.
Sïowa kluczowe: zarzÈdzanie, róĝnice, pïeÊ.
Nadesïany: 03.03.2016 | Zaakceptowany do druku: 27.07.2016
JEL: M12, J16
* Anna Górska – Kozmiñski University.
Mailing address: Kozminski University, 57/59 Jagielloñska St., 03-301 Warsaw; e-mail: ania.maria.
The General Question
Are women leading in abway that is different than men?
Hypothesis A: Men and women lead in abdifferent way.
Hypothesis B: Men and women adopt different leadership styles.
Hypothesis C: Men tend to be more task oriented compared to women.
Hypothesis D: Women tend to be more relationship oriented compared to men.
Studia i Materiaïy, 1/2016 (20): 136– 144
ISSN 1733-9758, © Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW
Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW DOI 10.7172/1733-9758.2016.20.10 137
Women are still underrepresented in
managerial positions, despite of the 6.3%
increase in employment over the last
six years. In Poland, 48% of women are
employed, but only 10% work in managerial positions (GUS, Kobiety i mÚĝczyěni
na rynku pracy, 2012) and as few as 4%
sit on the managerial boards of the 500
largest companies in Poland. Additionally, their earnings are lower by 20% as
compared to those of men. In contrast to
Denmark these results are poor. There,
women occupy 23% of all managerial positions and over 70% of women have jobs
(European Commission, 2013). Such low
numbers of women in managerial position
may be caused by the belief that men are
better leaders than women, as men embody
masculine characteristics, including power
and control, which used to be considered
the traits of abgood leader.
Due to such ablow presence of women
in managerial positions, companies loose
an opportunity to benefit from abdiversified
managerial team. Therefore, this paper is
intended to initiate ab discussion whether
the underrepresentation of women in
leadership positions is due to the fact that
women and men lead in different ways.
The goal of the current study is to determine whether gender differences exist in
leadership and their potential source. Abliterature analysis, supported by an interview
with an expert and abpilot study, was conducted in order to present the topic from
2. Defining Leadership
Leadership means being in charge of
other people in numerous ways, including
motivation, organization, and the inspiration of followers. A manager has formal
power over subordinates, which is not necessarily true in the case of ableader (Eagly
and Carli, 2003). Scholars distinguish
between leadership and management by
describing managers as those responsible
for formal organization and control work.
Leaders are defined as those who set new
directions, inspire people, and adapt to
changes. For the purposes of this article,
the terms leader and manager are used
interchangeably when discussing organizational leadership, as both activities are
intertwined in the organization (Eagly and
Leadership is not ab position. Leadership is an attitude as well as action. It can
be most suitably described as the process
of influencing in which one person can
support others in the accomplishment of
ab common goal (Chemers, 1997). There
continues to be an ongoing discussion abto
whether leaders are “born” or “made.”
In the 19th century leaders were
believed to inherit their qualities, skills, and
traits from their ancestors. Thus, the “great
men” theory was especially popular among
people from the upper classes (Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991). In the 20th century,
trait theory evolved into one making no distinction as to whether characteristics were
inherited or acquired. In the mid–20th century Ralph Stogdill found that individuals
do not become leaders through mere possession of certain traits. He found that situational factors may become influential as
well. Thus, Stogdill believed that there are
people that will more likely become leaders
than others, but only when in an appropriate situation (Stogdill, 1948). In 2011
Northouse, after thorough research on the
traits theory, found that traits actually may
be helpful in becoming absuccessful leader,
but that they do not predetermine whether
an individual will become one (Northouse,
The trait approach to leadership is necessary when evaluating differences between
male and female leaders as it assumes that
there exist certain common traits among
leaders, and for this reason there are
also different traits common to men and
women leaders. Apart from this trait-based
approach, other approaches have been
developed in the 20th century, including
behavioral, situational, relational, and “new
leadership” approaches. A theory, developed by Kurt Lewin, has also influenced
modern knowledge about leaders. This
theory states that there are three styles of
leadership: authoritarian, democratic, and
laissez-faire (Lewin, 1939). The authoritarian leadership style keeps strict and close
control over followers through monitoring,
regulations, and standardization. The democratic leadership style consists of ableader
who shares decision-making abilities with
team members by promoting interest and
social equality. Ab laissez-faire leader delegates tasks to followers providing little
138 Studia i Materiaïy 1/2016 (20)
direction and often no supervision. There
was abstudy conducted in 1939 by abgroup
of psychologists led by the inventor of the
theory. It proved that people tend to work
differently under each of the leadership
styles (Lewin, 1939), where the democratic
approach tends to be most appropriate and
Veithzal Rival (2008) argued that leadership style is “a set of leadership traits
used to influence subordinates in order to
achieve organizational goals or it can also
be said that the style of leadership is abpattern of behavior and preferred strategy
and is often applied by ableader.” Similarly,
Miftah Thoha (2007) states that leadership
style is abbehavior set used by an individual
when trying to influence others (Usman et
al., 2016). The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership identifies four leadership styles:
directive, supportive, participative, and
achievement-oriented (Usman et al., 2016).
The theory corresponds with the Lewin
divisions, where directive is similar to autocratic, while supportive and participative
resemble to democratic leadershipbstyle.
3. Gender Differences in Leadership
Gender affects leadership in many
aspects. Whether men and women lead
in abdifferent way is still abhighly debated
issue. However, the major effect of gender
on leadership is that women are presumed
to be less competent and less worthy to
hold leadership positions (Eagly, 2001).
Leadership style depends on abnumber
of factors, where gender is one of them.
Leaders adapt to expectations based on
people’s categorization of them as male or
female (Eagly and Johannesen-Schmidt,
2001). Those expectancies are derived from
traditional gender roles – roles in the society, in the family, and in paid employment
(Eagly et al., 2000).
Dr. Alice Eagly’s research from the 1980s
and 1990s proves that women in managerial
positions adopt the participative and democratic styles of leadership and act more as
transformational leaders than men, who
adopted abmore transactional style of leadership. According to Dr.bEagly’s research,
female managers tended to greater stress
on communication, affiliation, and cooperation than men. Moreover, women had
abmore collective approach (Andersen and
Hansson, 2011). Women intuitively notice
which employees need more support and
show more understanding (Kupczyk, 2009).
Additionally, it has been found that women
are more relationship oriented when compared to men, who are task oriented. The
study was repeated in 2001 by Eagly and
Johannesen-Schmidt. Results and conclusions remained unchanged (Eagly and
Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001). Ab contradictive study indicates that the only difference between male and female leadership
lies in the decision-making process, while
differences in other areas such as task orientation, motivation, and leadership styles
are not significant enough to warrant any
statement that leadership varies between
genders (Andersen and Hansson, 2011).
Moreover, research by Kent and Schuele
has proven no distinction when it comes
to transformational and transactional leadership between male and female leaders
(Kent and Schuele, 2010).
In accordance to organizational behavior theories, men and women who occupy
the same leadership role would behave
similarly (Kanter, 1977). In reality, gender
roles influence behavior causing differences
in the behavior of female leaders and male
leaders (Eagly and Johannesen-Schmidt,
2001). Accordingly, Gutek and Morasch (1982) maintained that gender role
does affect the organization and creates
ab “background” identity in the workplace
(Ridgeway, 1997). Research by Alice Eagly
(2000) suggests that even though some gender-stereotypic differences diminish under
the influence of organizational role, others
It is difficult to evaluate exactly to what
extent gender affects how people lead,
but the fact that men and women differ in
perception, communication, self-efficacy,
attitude towards success, relationships, and
morale is unquestionable (see e.g., Carol
Gilligan, Alice Eagly and Linda Carli) and
this directly influences how people relate to
each other and how they manage relationships in the work environment as well.
According to the 2009 McKinsey
Report, women’s leadership style, unlike
as men’s style, is more people-based and
can be described as role modeling. It was
also stated that women give clear expectations and rewards. Similarly, abstudy from
2012 prepared by Zenger Folkman demonstrates that women are rated as more competent when taking initiative, self-develop
Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW DOI 10.7172/1733-9758.2016.20.10 139
ment, honesty, and driving for results into
4. Source of Gender Differences
Leadership style depends on various
factors including education, experience,
culture, work experience, and personality,
where it is still not clear to what extent it
is influenced by gender and other factors.
From another perspective, leaders adapt
to expectation based on people’s categorization of them as male or female (Eagly
and Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001). Those
expectations are derived from traditional
gender roles such as role in the society, in
the family and in the organization (Eagly
et al., 2000).
According to research by Gita Patel,
men and women may have different leadership styles because of variability in the personal sphere. As research proves, in general
women are more risk-averse (Weber, Blais,
and Betz, 2002), have higher social sensitivity, and react by feeling. When it comes to
men, in general they are more overconfident, more optimistic, and react by action.
Among other personal differences the most
important are confidence, social risk, emotions, and actions.
When it comes to confidence and self–
efficacy, men tend to outdo women. In
2001 Barber and Odean found that men
trade in greater volumes than women do,
therefore were responsible for greater
losses (Barber and Odean, 2001). The fact
that women are less confident in financial
and business matters results in lower levels
of profitability. In the case of social risk,
even though women are considered to be
more risk averse, they tend to take more
risks in undertaking social risk than men
(Weber, Blais and Betz, 2002)
Another personal difference that may
affect leadership style is emotions and
actions. According to Harshman and
Paivio, women react more emotionally
than men do, especially in negative situations. So, when an immediate response
is required, men react by action whereas
abwomen’s reaction is to feel.
The fact that women in leadership positions are perceived in abdifferent way than
men (Carli and Eagly, 2007), may also
influence the way they lead due to different expectations. Perception of women
managers is, to great extent, affected by
stereotypes. In Poland women and girls are
assigned the role of maintaining the household, while men and boys are to sustain its
financial aspects (Zachorowska-Mazurkiewicz, 2006). Apart from the image of
stay-at-home women in Poland, there is
ab strong confidence in the social mentality and traditional beliefs that women are
less effective employee in comparison to
men. This image could be influenced by
the fact that women have two jobs – a professional one and the one at home – as
research demonstrates that woman are, in
the majority of cases, the only ones who
perform household activities. Moreover,
it is believed that women are “naturally”
worse leaders, have more difficulties with
the decision-making, and are typical predisposed to take care of children, instead of
taking care of abcompany (Baliñska, 2007).
It is also believed that woman do not
have adequate traits and predispositions
to hold high and prestigious positions
since they are too emotional, chaotic, and
not sufficiently assertive (Baliñska, 2007).
“People have similar beliefs about leaders
and men, but dissimilar beliefs about leaders and women” (Eagly et al., 2001), as
women are traditionally seen as caring, people-oriented, warm and nice, while leaders
have to be assertive, tough, result-oriented,
and confident. This creates ab situation in
which these two characteristics combined
together create abmismatch, resulting in the
poorer evaluation of women as leaders.
There is also ab visible dichotomy in
attitude towards the authoritarian female
manager and the authoritarian male manager, where there is more acceptance for
men to be authoritarian than for women
(Eagly, 2004). When abfemale chooses an
authoritarian style, she is seen as aggressive
and her leadership is rejected, as women
are stereotypically perceived as the “nice
ones.” Thus, the autocratic style does not
go in line with niceness, again resulting in
an unfavorable evaluation.
Therefore, the way women in leadership positions are perceived may influence
their effectiveness – when negative performance is expected it may lead to biased
evaluation of performance and abnegative
attitude towards the individual (Eagly,
2008). In reality, acceptance of ableader by
subordinates, superiors, and colleagues is
crucial to achieving success in leadership.
140 Studia i Materiaïy 1/2016 (20)
Moreover, the fact that women are given
more responsibilities (those connected with
the upbringing the children and taking care
of the household) and the socially accepted
stereotypical role of women – far from the
leadership position – affects the women
themselves, women have fewer opportunities to follow ab career path. This deeply
embedded archetype of ab women-Polish
mother affects the situation of women
on the labor market. Women employees are seen by the employer as mothers. Therefore, they are perceived as less
efficient workers, due to their additional
non-paid job, the one at home (Zachorowska-Mazurkiewicz, 2006).
Leadership style may have various
sources. Among them are education, work
experience, culture, and personal characteristics. Gender is only one of the factors
that may or may not affect leadership style.
Secondary and primary data collection
methods have been used for the purposes
of this study. Secondary data were collected
through EBSCO and JSTOR databases.
As to primary data, the presented research
should be perceived as abpilot study, which
requires further research due to the small
number of respondents and their lack of
experience in the management field. In
addition to the research itself, an interview has been conducted with an expert on
the impact of gender on leadership style –
The main data gathering technique for
this paper was ab questionnaire that consisted of three sets of closed questions. It
was developed by P.N. Northouse in 2009.
Ab 5-grade Likert scale (with selections
ranging from “Not at all” to “Very Much”)
was used in all twenty-five questions.
According to the author of the survey, it
was developed to self-recognize one’s leadership style and skills and is not limited to
leaders. The questionnaire was based on
“many empirical studies of leader’s skills,”
including the Katz three skill approach
(1955) and the skills model of leadership
developed by Mumford (Northouse, 2011).
The aim of the present study was to
initiate abdiscussion on whether there are
differences between the leadership styles
of men and women. The questionnaire
was divided into three parts. The first part
evaluates leadership style emphasizing the
leader’s attitude towards the employee.
The second part estimates task versus relationship orientation. The third looks at
personal leadership skills. This survey was
presented in its original language – English.
It was distributed among English-track students majoring in management.
Overall, 120 students completed the
survey. An effort was made to ensure an
equal representation of men and women
so that neither outnumbered the other.
Participants were aged from twenty-one
to twenty-four and all were majoring in
management programs. Thus, despite of
the lack of experience, they did possess
theoretical knowledge. The fact that students were of similar age and had similar
work experience, education, and organizational culture minimized the discrepancies
between them. High differences among
respondents would make it more difficult
to state whether the existing differences in
results were due to actual gender differences or other variations. Consequently,
lack of the experience in the management
field may suggest that identified differences
are due to sex differences and are not connected to the ascribed type of leadership
or the one imposed by the organization.
From another perspective, lack of experience in management forced participants
to give hypothetical answers – how they
would have behaved in abcertain situation
– without any actual reflection in reality.
Moreover, the fact that respondents were
from various countries as well as the fact
that the survey was not conducted in their
native languages might have had abnegative
effect on the results. Therefore, this questionnaire should be treated only as initial
research for ablarger study.
Additionally, abone-on-one interview was
conducted with Dr. Lidia D.b Czarkowska
in order to gain abbroader perspective on
the issue. The interview was conducted at
Koěmiñski University in April of 2014. It
consisted of three questions and lasted for
6. Empirical Research
The survey’s main objective was to show
differences and similarities in leadership
between male and female respondents. The
questionnaire was divided into three parts,
each focusing on ab different issue. Ques
Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW DOI 10.7172/1733-9758.2016.20.10 141
tions three to eleven made up the first part
that evaluates leadership style with emphasis on the leader’s approach to employees. Respondents had to choose the level
to which they agreed with the statement,
where one stands for “strongly disagree”
and five for “strongly agree.”
To ascribe ableadership style of authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-faire, the average scores of each respondent were summarized with regard to gender. After running
the students t-test, it can be stated that
with statistical significance female respondents are more likely to adopt abdemocratic
leadership style (n = 60, p < 0.01), while
in both the authoritarian and laissez-faire
styles there was no statistical significance
for men and women participants. In support
of Hypo thesis B, women are more likely to
adopt ab democratic leadership style compared to men.
Looking at the questions specifically,
statistically significant differences were
observed in scoring, where out of twenty–
five questions, eight were significantly
influenced by the gender of the participant
with at least ab95% certainty. In the further
analysis, questions that indicated statistical significance (p < 0.05) were analyzed,
which supports Hypothesis A.
In questions that implied that employees require close supervision, male respondents scored 11% higher on average than
women (p < 0.05). This suggests that men
more likely prefer close supervision of subordinates than women. In contrast, statements that employees work better when
given more freedom resulted in opposite
scores. There, the majority of women
agreed with the statement as compared
with only one-third of men. On average,
women allocated higher points in this question by 13% (p < 0.05).
High discrepancies between the genders were observed in questions regarding treatment of rewards and punishments
as motivational tools. The majority of
women agreed that employees should be
given rewards and punishments for the
motivational purposes. On average, this
was 15% more likely than in the case of
men (p < 0.05). Moreover, the majority of
female respondents agreed with the statement while over 60% of men were either
neutral or disagreed.
The first part of the questionnaire indicated that male leaders are 10% less likely
to adopt ab democratic style of leadership
compared to women (p < 0.05).
The second part of the questionnaire
analyzed task versus relationship orientation in leadership.
The highest discrepancy as well as highest significance level was observed in statements about preparing ab checklist. As
ab result, women scored 22% higher than
men (p < 0.01). A quarter of all women
claimed that they always make ab checklist
while only 5% of men claimed to do so. Similarly, female respondents were more likely to
prepare ab“to-do” list, with ab14% difference
with respect to male results (p < 0.05). When
it comes to listening to the special needs of
group members, women participants were
statistically significantly less likely to do so
(p < 0.05). As many as 75% of men claimed
to always or often do so compared with only
half of the women respondents.
The answers were categorized in order
to specify which gender is more task or
relationship oriented. On average, women
scored 18.33 points out of 25 in task orientation while man only scored 17.22
(p < 0.05). When it comes to relationship
orientation, male respondents scored 18.72
while female respondents scored one point
lower (p < 0.05). Results indicate that
female respondents were more likely to be
task oriented while male respondents relationship oriented with ablevel of certainty
of 95%. The successive part of the study
suggests that Hypotheses C and D are not
supported. Moreover, they suggest contradictory results with respect to what can be
found in the literature.
The last part of the questionnaire evaluated the personality traits of ableader. This
part indicated that women participants are
more likely to present more abtolerant and
empathetic attitude in comparison to male
participants with an average difference of
10% (p < 0.05).
This initial research study supports
Hypothesis A, which states that men and
women do lead in different ways.
In order to gain an additional perspective on the topic of gender differences in
leadership, an interview was conducted
with Dr. Lidia Czarkowska in April of 2014
at Koěmiñski University. The interview
lasted for forty minutes and consisted of
three general questions:
1. Are there differences in the leadership
of men and women?
142 Studia i Materiaïy 1/2016 (20)
2. What are the sources of these differences?
3. Can these differences change in line
with experience, education, and position?
The interview was conducted in Polish,
which is native language of both participants.
According to the interview, there is no
clear distinction between male and female
leadership as leadership style depends on
various factors – education, organization,
and experience – while gender is only one
of these indicators and is not that much of
an influence on leadership style by itself.
This is somewhat at odds with the results of
the presented study, which indicated statistically significant differences in spheres of
leadership style as well as task orientation.
According to Dr. Czarkowska, when
evaluating whether there are differences
between male and female leaders it is necessary to examine three different levels –
natural, cultural, and organizational.
The natural level demonstrates that man
and women vary, both physically and psychologically. Even the construction of human
brain itself indicates such differences. Differences on the natural level are visible
through women’s ability to focus on multiple
things at the same time, for example. Similarly, women handle emotions better and
know how to cope with them. Men, for their
part, have to learn how to manage, verbalize, and cope with their emotional sphere.
Similarly, the study concluded that female
respondents were more likely to present
ab more empathetic and tolerant position.
This may suggest that female respondents
cope with emotionality more effectively in
On the cultural level, men and women
vary as abresult of stereotypes and ascribed
roles. Additionally, culture may impact on
leadership style in the case of both males
and females. In abhighly masculine culture,
where showing control and achievement is
important, both male and female leaders
will adopt more masculine characteristics.
In ab culture where women are traditionally seen as abconflict resolver in the family, they will act similarly in ab company,
assuming ab more relationship-oriented
position. Additionally, cultural acceptance
of women in higher position and perceptions of women have also turned out to be
influential in adopted leadership style.
Similarly, on the organizational level,
leaders often adapt their style to the culture that is presented within the company.
In this regard, the pilot study has shown
that female respondents are focused more
on the realization of the task, while male
participants are intent on keeping up the
relationship. This is contradictive of the
Polish tradition of women, who should
take care of relationships within the family
The conducted survey shows that
female respondents are more likely to
adopt ab democratic leadership style. This
corresponds to Dr. Eagly’s research from
the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s and supports
Hypothesis B. The survey also proved that
female respondents treat punishments
and rewards as abmotivational tool, which
matches McKinsey research from 2009.
When it comes to relationship versus
task orientation, the presented study indicated results opposite those of Dr.bEagly,
which stated that women tend to be more
relationship oriented while men task oriented. Thus, the results where the reverse
of the initial Hypotheses C and D. The
difference between results was substantial. On the other hand, however, relationship-oriented male respondents stated that
employees work better under pressure and
must be constantly supervised and monitored, which are not indicators of ab relationship orientation. On the contradictive
side, task-oriented female participants,
gave their employees more freedom and,
what is important, scored substantially
higher when it comes to showing tolerance
and empathy, which would be associated
more likely with relationship rather than
task orientation. In her report, Dr.b Alice
Eagly showed that women put more
emphasis on communication, affiliation,
and cooperation than men. However, the
pilot study presented the exact opposite
view. Male respondents listen to the special
needs of group members significantly more
often, while women focus on completion
of the task, which is contradictive to the
Hypotheses C and D. When it comes to
communication skills, the presented study
did not indicate any differences between
male and female scores. This is in spite of
that fact that in literature it can be found
that women communicate more effectively.
According to Dr. Czarkowska, the difference between the current pilot study and
Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW DOI 10.7172/1733-9758.2016.20.10 143
Dr.bAlice Eagly’s research from the 1990s
may vary in relationship and task orientation, as women’s position in companies has
changed over the last twenty years. In line
with the interview, women may become
more task oriented due to the fact that they
want to prove to be leaders that are as good
leader as men. Thus, they put more focus
on the achievement of the task. The fact
that women have to find abbalance between
their private and professional lives may also
indicate why women became more focused
on task completion.
These results may be interpreted as
women having to meet higher standards
than men to attain leadership roles. Therefore, they have to maintain better performance to retain their position and cannot
afford the risk of abpassive or laissez-faire
leadership style (Eagly and Johannesen-
The underrepresentation of women
in managerial positions reflects ab wasted
opportunity to benefit from the capabilities of the best potential candidates, male
The current study concludes that this
underrepresentation is not the evidence
of abless adequate leadership style on the
part of women. Firstly, gender is not the
dominant factor in leadership style and
secondly, previous and current research
indicates that women are more likely to
adopt abdemocratic style than men, while
at the same time being more tolerant and
Leadership is affected by various variables where gender may be one of them,
influencing style and orientation, but also
relations, perceptions, and expectations
from the subordinate side towards the
leader. Due to stereotypes and biases,
women leaders are perceived and evaluated in ab different way than men in the
same positions. Cultural, organizational,
and personality factors influence the way
men and women behave in leadership positions and the style they adopt.
Literature and the current study suggest that leadership may be influenced
by gender, supporting the Hypothesis A,
where women act in more supportive ways
giving subordinates more freedom, less
supervision, and are more understating
and tolerant. Moreover, they treat rewards
as motivational tool and organize work
In support of Hypothesis B, the study
indicated that men and women do adopt
different leadership style. Women tend to
be more democratic when holding leadership positions. This corresponds with
Dr.b Eagly’s research from the 1980s,
1990s,b and 2000s. Moreover, women are
less likely to adopt an authoritarian leadership style than man. This is because of
the lower level of acceptance for autocratic
women than autocratic men from the subordinate side.
Hypotheses C and D, which indicated
that men tend to be more task oriented,
while women relationship oriented accordingly, were not confirmed. In fact, the study
presents contrary results. This indicates
that women are more likely to be task oriented while men are relationship oriented.
Results are contradictory. Task oriented
women are still more likely to act in more
empathetic and tolerant way than relationship-oriented men.
These results should be perceived as
ab pilot study due to the fact that respondents were not experienced leaders. Results
might vary for actual leaders and managers.
Further research on managers would present more realistic results and would answer
questions regarding the extent to which
men and women lead in different ways
and what are the sources of these probable
differences. Further research should be
conducted on leaders, preferably from the
same organization and with similar work
experience in order to minimize differences
that may also be indicators of the adopted
style of leadership.
Andersen, J.A. and Hansson, P.H. (2011). At the
End of the Road? On Differences between Women
and Men in Leadership Behavior. Leadership
and Organizational Development Journal, 32(5),
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